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When the international banking giant Citibank moved its credit-card operations to Sioux Falls, S.D. in 1981, it altered the small Midwestern city overnight. With a population of barely 80,000 at the time, Sioux Falls still had an economy built on agriculture and meat-packing. But when state leaders, desperate to attract outside businesses during the economic recession of the early 1980s, changed South Dakota's usury laws to eliminate the cap on interest rates and fees, Citibank came calling.
The company initially promised to bring 500 jobs to the area and to build a large facility in northwest Sioux Falls. Citibank now employs more than 2,900 workers in the city, and it anchors a financial sector that provides more than 16,000 jobs in a metro area with a growing population of nearly 230,000 residents. And according to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp., South Dakota holds more bank assets—$2.5 trillion—than any other state in the country.
At the time, South Dakota was the only state with this unusually lax approach to banking laws, and Citibank was soon joined by Wells Fargo, Capital One, First Premier, and other financial institutions that were eager to relocate their credit-card operations to the Mount Rushmore State. A handful of other states, including Delaware and Nevada, have since followed suit, but other tax incentives such as the absence of personal and corporate income taxes—South Dakota eliminated both in the 1940s—provided a significant draw.
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ssoc Braddock CH III Edwards KA Hasenberg NM Laidley TL Levinson W Informed decision making in outpatient practice time to get back to basics JAMA Gattellari M Voigt KJ Butow PN Tattersall MH When the treatment goal is not cure are cancer patients equipped to make informed decisions J Clin Oncol Koedoot CG De Haes JC Heisterkamp SH Bakker PJ De Graeff A De Haan RJ Palliative chemotherapy or watchfulwaiting A vignettes study among oncologists J Clin Oncol Cassileth BR Zupkis RV SuttonSmith K March V Information and participation preferences among cancer patients Ann Intern Med Macklin R The ethical problems with sham surgery in clinical research N Engl J Med Rothman KJ Michels KB The continuing unethical use of placebo controls N Engl J Med Temple R Ellenberg SS Placebocontrolled trials and activecontrol trials in the evaluation of new treatments Part ethical and scientific issues Ann Intern Med Ellison NM Chevlen EM Palliative chemotherapy In Berger AM Portenoy RK Weissman DE editors Principles and Practice of Palliative Care and Supportive Oncology nd edn Philadelphia Lippincott Williams Wilkins Downloaded from httpjjcooxfordjournalsorg by guest on February Alcohol Consumption and the Risk of Hypertension in Women and Men Howard D Sesso Nancy R Cook Julie E Buring JoAnn E Manson and J Michael Gaziano Hypertension originally published online February doi HYPERTENSIONAHAHypertension is published by the American Heart Association Greenville Avenue Dallas TX Copyright American Heart Association Inc All rights reserved Print ISSN X Online ISSN The online version of this article along with updated information and services is located on the World Wide Web athttphyperahajournalsorgcontentPermissions Requests for permissions to reproduce figures tables or portions of articles originally published in Hypertension can be obtained via RightsLink a service of the Copyright Clearance Center not the Editorial Office Once the online version of the published article for which permission is being requested is located click Request Permissions in the middle column of the Web page under Services Further information about this process is available in the Permissions and Rights Question and Answer document Reprints Information about reprints can be found online at httpwwwlwwcomreprints Subscriptions Information about subscribing to Hypertension is online at httphyperahajournalsorgsubscriptionsDownloaded from httphyperahajournalsor
s are one explanation for this finding Increased dietary carotenoid consumption and levels of individual plasma carotenoids may be associated with the decreased risk of cancer and CVD In addition levels of individual plasma carotenoids have been associated with specific risk factors for chronic medical conditions such as diet exercise and cholesterol Some authors have suggested using total plasma carotenoids as a marker of a diet high in fruits and vegetables However there are comparatively fewer data regarding total plasma carotenoids and the frequency of both traditional and more novel risk factors for chronic medical conditions Therefore we examined the association between various traditional and more novel risk factors with total plasma carotenoids in a crosssectional sample of middleaged and older menMethods Study population The Physicians Health Study PHS has previously been described in detail Briefly the PHS began in as a randomised doubleblind placebocontrolled factorial trial of bcarotene and aspirin in initially healthy male US physicians in the primary prevention of cancer and CVD All protocols were approved by the Institutional Review Board of Brigham and Womens Hospital Blood collection A followup blood collection was conducted among randomised men still alive starting in December Blood kits with vacuum tubes containing EDTA instructions for the blood draws and coldpacks were mailed to all participants Physicians returned blood samples inAbbreviations CRP Creactive protein HDLC HDLcholesterol ICAM intercellular adhesion molecule LDLC LDLcholesterol PHS Physicians Health Study Corresponding author Wildon R Farwell fax email WildonFarwellvagovW R Farwell et alBritish Journal of Nutritionprovided coldpacks by prepaid overnight courier Upon receipt each sample was centrifuged divided into samples and stored at C Followup blood kits were received from of participants alive at the time of the second blood collection beginning in A total of middleaged and older men who contributed blood and were identified as free of CVD and cancer were selected for a nested case control study of plasma carotenoids and CVD We performed a crosssectional analysis on these men identified as controls for this previous study Blood samples were analysed for lycopene bcryptoxanthin acarotene bcarotene lutein zeaxanthin atocopherol and gtocopherol at Our Lady of Mercy Medical Center Bronx NY USA a laboratory that has participated in the U